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VCTC Anatomy & Physiology

Discussion in 'Past Exam Papers' started by Betty Boo, Mar 8, 2005.

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  1. Betty Boo

    Betty Boo New Member

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    :eek:Please Please Please if anyone can help with the VTCT A&P recent exam questions it would be fantastic!! [&o]Really struggling:(
     
  2. Magical_Trevor

    Magical_Trevor New Member

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    I sat the VCTC A&P exam today 16th March 2005

    Here are the questions. They have all been listed before. I'm not sure of all the answers and 1 or 2 questions seemed a bit tricky but on the whole the exam was wee buns and I was out in 10 mins.


    Not in any order

    1 Q what is mitosis
    Ans - cell division
    2 Q functions of the skin - Check this out as 2 of the answers seemed possible.
    options included Protection, heat something, absorbtion etc 3 per option.
    3 Q what is chloasma
    Ans brown patches of skin
    4 Q which is not epithelium tissue
    Ans Cancellous
    5 Q what is a function of the spleen
    Ans to dispose of worn out red blood cells
    6 Q what does sympathetic system do to heart
    Ans speed heart rate
    7 Q how many bones in spine
    Ans 33
    8 Q what is muscular movement in digestive system
    Ans peristalsis
    9 Q what does lymphatic system rely on
    Ans muscular movement
    10 Q which is not excretory organ
    Ans spleen (not sure about this one)
    11 Q what builds up in muscles
    Ans lactic acid
    12 how many chromosomes in cell
    Ans 46
    13 Q what illness does over secretion of thyroxine cause
    Ans graves disease
    14 Q supporting ligament of breast
    Ans coopers ligament
    15 Q what do lymph nodes do
    Ans filter and phagocytes
    16Q which systems are hormones transported in
    Ans circulatory
    17 Q what does risorius do?
    Ans Lifts corner of mouth
    18 Q where is dermal papilla
    Ans Root of the hair follicle
    19 Q what does bicep femoris do
    Ans Extends hip and flexes knee
    20 Q Voluntary muscle is NOT striated - true or false (read the question carefully)
    Ans False (not sure about this one)
    21Q does pituitary gland control hormones in the body
    Ans yes (I said false as I thought it was the hypothalamus but most people said yes -check it yourself to be sure)
    22 Q what does vasopressin do
    Ans lowers blood pressure (Mmmm not sure about this again - check it)
    23 Q what do platelets do
    Ans clotting blood
    24 Q what does adrenal medulla do
    Ans fight or flight hormones
    25 Q what is in epidermis layer of skin
    Ans melanocyte (found in Basal layer)

    All these questions have been posted before and are still being used today I just updated them a little. Rest assured if you are doing your exam soon, read up and prove these answers to yourself. You'll sleep easy like I will tonight. Happy St Patricks day for tomorrow all. :)
     
  3. Queeney25

    Queeney25 New Member

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    RE: VTCT A&P EXAM PAPERS

    Took my exam and here’s all the question with answers, hope it helps,, let me know if you get the same paper!!!
    :)
    All in the right order

    1 Q which is ‘not’ epithelium tissue
    Ans I put (d) Cancellous but was told it was (a) pavement (check yourself)
    2 Q functions of the skin - 2 of the answers seemed possible.
    A=Protection, sensation, absorbtion
    3 Q does pituitary gland control hormones in the body , true/fales
    Ans True
    4 Q how many bones in spine
    Ans 33
    5 Q what do platelets do
    Ans clotting blood
    6 Q what builds up in muscles
    Ans lactic acid
    7 Q which is not excretory organ
    Ans spleen
    8 supporting ligament of breast
    Ans coopers ligament
    9 Q Voluntary muscle is NOT striated - true or false
    Ans I put False (not sure about this one)
    10 how many chromosomes in cell
    Ans 46
    11 Q what is muscular movement in digestive system
    Ans peristalsis
    12 Q what is chloasma
    Ans brown patches of skin
    13 Q what is in epidermis layer of skin
    Ans (b) melanocyte (found in Basal layer)
    14 Q where is dermal papilla
    Ans (D) At base of the hair follicle
    15 Q what does risorius do?
    Ans (b) Draws corners of the mouth upwards
    16 9 Q what does lymphatic system rely on
    Ans (b) movement
    17 Q what does bicep femoris do
    Ans ( c) Extends hip and flexes knee
    18 Q what is mitosis
    Ans - (d) cell division
    19 Q what does adrenal medulla do
    Ans (A) preparing the body for fight or flight
    20 Q what does hypo secretion of vasopressin do
    Not sure
    (b) higher blood pressure (d) lower blood pressure (cant remember other 2)
    21 which systems are hormones transported in
    Ans (b) circulatory
    22 Q what illness does over secretion of thyroxine cause
    Ans (a) graves disease
    23 Q what is a function of the spleen
    Ans ( c) destroy worn out red blood cells
    24 Q what do lymph nodes do
    Ans (B) filtration and phagocytes
    25 Q what does sympathetic system do to heart
    Ans (a) accelerating the action of the heart
     
  4. purrrfecttigrrr

    purrrfecttigrrr New Member

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    Anyone else take the VTCT A&P today?

    I took the VTCT A&P exam this morning.........[&o]

    Multiple choice, 25 questions, gotta get 15 right to pass.

    Let's put it this way... I nearly cried after reading the first 6 questions and not bein able to answer them!! I started from the back instead! I hope I managed to scrape by. I so damn annoyed though! Our teacher recommended learning diagrams as we can pick up lots of marks through labelling... guess what?...no diagrams to label! not even a cell!! No respiratory system, no reproductive, no heart...all the thing's I revised!! I just pray that the re-sits are soon. I HATE that my whole course rests on this one stupid bloody subject! [:mad:]

    Oh, yeah, nearly forgot what I came here for... Can't remember all the questions cause I was too busy mumbling and grumbling, but there were a few...

    Functions of Lymph
    Order food passes through the digestive system
    order of the small intestines
    bones of the shoulder
    a bone in the lower leg
    First layer of epidermis
    Function of leukocytes

    There were at least 7 that were REALLY easy, so if you happen to know more about A&P than I do, which isn't hard, then you'll probably fly through it!

    Good luck to all if you havn't taken it yet.

    Sam x
     
  5. bonniestsweetpea

    bonniestsweetpea New Member

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    RE: Anyone else take the VTCT A&P today?

    Can only remember a few I'm afraid, and are not worded as they were in the exam but to just give you an idea

    Where is the spleen situated
    What do erythrocytes do
    Main Lymph duct
    What is collagen and elastin
    What type of joint is shoulder joint
    The name of the movement in digestion
    Bones of the skull
    Name of membranes
    What is hair composed of
    How is Lymph drained into the blood stream
    What is the function of Skeleton

    Sorry can't remember all of them, maybe someone else can add to it. I am also not putting the answers purely because I am sure quite a few of mine were wrong.

    Vicki
     
  6. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

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    RE: VCTC Anatomy & Physiology

    Posted by Farideh

    hiya

    it had no questions about body massage, which i study so much. Only A& P but very easy. i think i finish within the first five minutes. The wording isnt exact but here is some of the questions i can remember. I've only put the correct answer to each question. it is multiply choice and out of 19 you only need to get 11 right to pass.

    1) How does lymphtic fluid passes through? capillaries

    2) What are the functions of skin? irretability, heat regulation, protection.

    3) When the sun penetrate through the skin which vitamin does it change into?
    vitamin D

    4)What are structure of cells? cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus

    5) What are the memebrane called? mucous, serous and synovial

    6) How many layers are there in epidermis? 5

    7) What is the shedding of dead skin cells is known as? desquamation

    8) What are the bone tissue are called? compact & cancellous

    9) What type of joint is elbow? Hinge joint

    10) cant remember wether it ask for what is the name for the collar bone? clavicle
    or wether it asked what is the bone in the neck is called? cervical


    11) What is the muscular system consists of? involuntary, cardiac, voluntary

    12) what are the calf muscles called? Gastrocnemius, soleus

    13) True or false, does lymph nodes filter out harmful substances from the lymp. ( true)

    14) What is the main lymphatic ducts known as? Thoracic

    15) What is the nervous system consists of? brain & spinal cord

    16) what is the knee cap is called? Patella

    17) what is the muscle of the chest is called? Pectoralis

    18) what are the muscles of trunk is called? obliques & rectus abdominis

    hope they help, good luck & god bless.



    fari
     
  7. Touchyfeely

    Touchyfeely New Member

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    IHM, VTCT A& P Exam.

    Questions I had today.

    1. Label bones of the neck and shoulder - diagram with bonesto choose from.
    2. Muscles of the face and neck - diagram with muscles to choose from.
    3.Skin diagram to fill in with names to choose from.
    4.Label veins of the head and neck - with vein names to choose from.
    5.Lymph nodes to name with a choice of names to choose from.
    6. Inspiration and expiration diagram - which was which?
    7. What is Desquamation and which skinlayer does it involve?
    8. Name 4 functions of the skin and examples of each.

    That was it.
     
  8. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

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    RE: VTCT A&P EXAM PAPERS

    Histology
    Where is DNA found
    Which tissue is protective and insulatory
    Which tissue is found all over the body connecting and supporting
    Which is not made of yellow elastic (Stomach, spleen, aorta,bladder)
    What does blood tissue do

    Skin
    What does the urinary system rely on the skin to do(Excrete,secret, control blood pressure and something else)
    Which one is bacterial (acne vulgaris and three others)
    What is a verruca (viral)
    What causes urticaria (Allergy ,virus and two others)
    What is eczema (congenital)

    Skeletal system
    What kind of bone is the sternum (flat)
    What is another work for the scapula
    What is another word for the clavicle
    Where is a foot bone (talus, radius, tibia and one other)
    What is lordosis (exaggerated inward,outward, brittle bone and one other)

    Muscular system
    What is plantarflexion ( Toe up , toe down, and two others)
    What is abbduction ( can't remember - but v.easy)
    Which muscle draws shoulder forward and rotates scapula
    Which muscle raises trunk after sitting
    Where would you find the triangularis

    Vascular system
    Where would you find chemoreceptors
    What does the splenic artery supply apart from the spleen
    What's the main artery in the arm (itec is really so unimaginative!)
    What do venules do ( Carry deoxygenated blood from capillaries to veins)
    Where do capillaries come from (Arterioles)

    Lymphatic system
    What does the thoracic duct drain into
    What is NOT an important function of lymph noes (filter the blood)
    Where would you find the posterior auricular node
    What would happen to the body if lymph didn't work (sceptecaemia)

    Respiratory system
    Which does not moisten and warm air ( trachea, larynx, pharynx, nose)
    Where are chemoreceptors found
    What causes inspiration to stop so provoking expiration

    Neurological system
    What speeds up transmission of nerve impulses
    What do sensory nerves do
    Which part of the brain is responsible for balance
    How many spinal nerves
    What does the facial nerve do
    Endocrine system
     
  9. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

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    By [link=http://www.healthypages.net/forum/showProfile.asp?memid=16340]purrrfecttigrrr[/link]

    Only done down to question 14 so far!!!

    Unit M67 Digestive and Excretory Systems

    1. Describe the position, structure, blood supply, secretions, and functions of the liver.
    Structure & Position
    Situated in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, the liver is divided by fissures (fossae) into four lobes: the right (the largest lobe), left, quadrate and caudate lobes. It is connected to the diaphragm and abdominal walls by five ligaments: the membranous falciform (also separates the right and left lobes), coronary, right and left triangular ligaments, and the fibrous round ligament (which is derived from the embryonic umbilical vein).

    The liver is the only human organ that has the remarkable property of self-regeneration. If a part of the liver is removed, the remaining parts can grow back to its original size and shape.

    Blood Supply
    Venous blood from the entire gastrointestinal tract (containing nutrients from the intestines) is brought to the liver by the hepatic portal vein. Branches of this vein pass in between the lobules and terminate in the sinusoids. Oxygenated blood is supplied in the hepatic artery. The blood leaves the liver via a central vein in each lobule, which drains in the hepatic vein.
    · Hepatic vein - one of several short veins originating within the lobes of the liver as small branches, which unite to form the hepatic veins. These lead directly to the inferior vena cava, draining blood from the liver.
    · Inferior vena cava - formed by the union of the right and left common iliac veins, collects blood from parts of the body below the diaphragm and conveys it to the right atrium of the heart.
    · Hepatic artery - a blood vessel that supplies the liver with oxygenated blood. It supplies 20% of the liver's blood.
    · Hepatic portal vein - a blood vessel that drains venous blood into the liver from the entire gastrointestinal tract. It supplies the remaining 80% of the liver's blood.
    Functions
    Regulations, Synthesis, and Secretion - Hepatocytes (metabolically active cells that serve many functions) take up glucose, minerals, and vitamins from portal and systemic blood and store them. In addition, they produce blood clotting factors, transporter proteins, cholesterol, and bile components. By regulating blood levels of substances such as cholesterol and glucose, the liver helps maintain body homeostasis.
    Glucose – Liver maintains blood concentrations of glucose, by storing or releasing it as needed.
    Proteins - Most blood proteins (except for antibodies) are synthesized and secreted by the liver. One of the most abundant serum proteins is albumin. The liver also produces most of the proteins responsible for blood clotting, called coagulation or clotting factors. If the blood cannot clot normally due to a decrease in the production of these factors, excessive bleeding may result.
    Bile – A greenish fluid synthesized by hepatocytes and secreted into biliary ducts. Leaves the liver to be temporarily stored in the gallbladder before emptying into the small intestine. Major components of bile include cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin (a metabolite of red blood cell hemoglobin), and bile salts. Bile salts act as "detergents" that aid in the digestion and absorption of dietary fats.
    Lipids - Cholesterol, a type of lipid, is found in cell membranes and helps maintain the physical integrity of cells. The liver synthesizes it, which is then packaged and distributed to the body to be sued or excreted into bile for removal from the body. Increased cholesterol concentrations in bile may predispose to gallstone formation.
    The liver also synthesizes lipoproteins, which are made up of cholesterol, triglycerides (containing fatty acids), phospholipids, and proteins. Lipoproteins circulate in the blood and shuttle cholesterol and fatty acids (an energy source) between the liver and body tissues.
    Storage - Liver is designed to store important substances such as glucose (in the form of glycogen). The liver also stores fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E and K), folate, vitamin B 12 , and minerals such as copper and iron.

    Purification, Transformation, and Clearance – Liver removes harmful substances (such as ammonia and toxins) from the blood and then breaks them down or transforms them into less harmful compounds. In addition, the liver metabolises most hormones and ingested drugs to either more or less active products.
    Ammonia - The liver converts ammonia to urea, which is excreted into the urine by the kidneys. In the presence of severe liver disease, ammonia accumulates in the blood because of both decreased blood clearance and decreased ability to form urea. Elevated ammonia levels can be toxic, especially to the brain, and may play a role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy.
    Bilirubin - Yellow pigment formed as a breakdown product of red blood cell haemoglobin. The spleen, which destroys old red cells, releases "unconjugated" bilirubin into the blood, where it circulates in the blood bound to albumin. The liver efficiently takes up bilirubin and chemically modifies it to "conjugated," or water-soluble, bilirubin that can be excreted into bile. Increased production or decreased clearance of bilirubin results in jaundice, a yellow pigmentation of the skin and eyes from bilirubin accumulation.
    Hormones - Since the liver plays important roles in hormonal modification and inactivation, chronic liver disease may cause hormonal imbalances. For example, the masculinising hormone testosterone and the feminising hormone estrogen are metabolised and inactivated by the liver.
    Drugs - Nearly all drugs are modified or degraded in the liver. In particular, oral drugs are absorbed by the gut and transported via the portal circulation to the liver. In the liver, drugs may undergo first-pass metabolism, a process in which they are modified, activated, or inactivated before they enter the systemic circulation, or they may be left unchanged. Alcohol is primarily metabolized by the liver, and accumulation of its products can lead to cell injury and death.
    Toxins - The liver is generally responsible for detoxifying chemical agents and poisons, whether ingested or inhaled. Pre-existing liver disease may inhibit or alter detoxification processes and thus increase the toxic effects of these agents. Additionally, exposure to chemicals or toxins may directly affect the liver, ranging from mild dysfunction to severe and life-threatening damage.

    2. Describe the position, structure, and functions of the salivary glands.
    Three major pairs of glands, the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual, surround the oral cavity. The lobules of each gland contain numerous ade nomeres that empty their secretions (saliva) through a series of intercalated, striated, and interlobular ducts into the oral cavity. The saliva moistens the food, lubricates the digestive tract, and begins the enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates. The glands also excrete certain salts; they protect against bacterial invasion through the mouth by releasing lysozyme and IgA into the saliva.
    3. Describe the position, structure, and functions of the gall bladder.
    The gallbladder is connected to the main bile duct through the gallbladder duct (cystic duct or, in Latin, ductus cysticus). The main biliary tract runs from the liver to the duodenum, and the cystic duct is effectively a "cul de sac", serving as entrance and exit to the gallbladder. The surface marking of the gallbladder is the intersection of the mid-clavicular line (MCL) and the transpyloric plane, or the tip of the ninth rib. The blood supply is by the cystic artery and vein, which run parallel to the cystic duct.

    Has an epithelial lining characterised by recesses (called Aschoff's recesses), which are pouches inside the lining. Under the epithelium there is a layer of connective tissue, followed by a muscular wall that contracts in response to cholecystokinin.

    Functions
    Functions as an optional store for the bile secreted by the liver. Bile acids are important in making the fats in the intestine soluble before their digestion and absorption. The gall bladder contracts to eject high concentrations of bile into the intestine when a fatty meal is consumed but it does the same thing when any other sort of meal is taken or even when water is drunk.

    Secretes cholesterol and bilirubin into the bile, and herein lies the main problem. Cholesterol is not always in stable solution, even in perfectly healthy people, and can crystallize to form stones. In addition, the soluble conjugated bilirubin may be converted to free bilirubin, which then precipitates. The bile in the gall bladder is therefore an unstable concentrated "soup of chemical problems."

    4. Draw and label a diagram of the digestive system from the mouth to the anal canal.

    5. Describe the mechanical and chemical processes involved with the breakdown of ingested food in the digestive system.
    Mouth - Food is partly broken down by the process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary enzymes (these enzymes are produces by the salivary glands and break down starches into smaller molecules).
    Oesophagus - After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the oesophagus. The oesophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. This muscle movement gives us the ability to eat or drink even when we're upside-down.
    Stomach - A large, sack-like organ that churns the food and bathes it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme.
    Small intestine - After being in the stomach, food enters the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. It then enters the jejunum and then the ileum (the final part of the small intestine). In the small intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.
    Large intestine - After passing through the small intestine, food passes into the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food. Many microbes (bacteria like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the large intestine help in the digestion process. The first part of the large intestine is called the cecum (the appendix is connected to the cecum). Food then travels upward in the ascending colon. The food travels across the abdomen in the transverse colon, goes back down the other side of the body in the descending colon, and then through the sigmoid colon.
    End of the process - Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus.

    6. Describe how carbohydrates, protein, and fats are metabolised in the digestive system.
    Salivary amylase breaks starch (a polysaccharide) down to maltose (a disaccharide).
    Bicarbonate ions in saliva act as buffers, maintaining a pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Mucins (mucous) lubricate and help hold chewed food together in a clump called a bolus.
    The tongue contains chemical receptors in structures called taste buds. The tongue is muscular and can move food. It pushes food to back where it is swallowed.
    Gastric juice Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin, which digests proteins. Pepsinogen production is stimulated by the presence of gastrin in the blood.
    HCl - Hydrochloric acid (HCl) converts pepsinogen to pepsin which breaks down proteins to peptides. HCl maintains a pH in the stomach of approximately 2.0.
    It also dissolves food and kills microorganisms.
    Mucous protects the stomach from HCl and pepsin.
    Gastrin is a hormone that stimulates the stomach to secrete gastric juice.

    The pancreas acts as an exocrine gland by producing pancreatic juice which empties into the small intestine via a duct. Pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes the acidic material from the stomach.
    Pancreatic amylase digests starch to maltose.
    Trypsin and Chymotrypsin digest proteins to peptides. Like pepsin (produced in the stomach), they are specific for certain amino acids, not all of them. They therefore produce peptides.
    Lipase digests fats to glycerol and fatty acids.
    The liver stores glucose as glycogen (animal starch) and breaks down glycogen to release glucose as needed. This storage-release process maintains a constant glucose concentration in the blood (0.1%). If glycogen and glucose run short, proteins can be converted to glucose.
    Hormones
    · Gastrin - The presence of food in the stomach stimulates stretch receptors which relay this information to the medulla oblongata. The medulla stimulates endocrine cells in the stomach to secrete the hormone gastrin into the circulatory system. Gastrin stimulates the stomach to secrete gastric juice.
    · Secretin - Secretin is produced by cells of the duodenum, its production is stimulated by acid chyme from stomach. It stimulates the pancreas to produce sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes the acidic chyme. It also stimulates the liver to secrete bile.
    · CCK (cholecystokinin) - production is stimulated by the presence of food in the duodenum. It stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to produce pancreatic enzymes.
    · GIP (Gastric Inhibitory Peptide) - Food in the duodenum stimulates certain endocrine cells to produce GIP. It has the opposite effects of gastrin; it inhibits gastric glands in the stomach and it inhibits the mixing and churning movement of stomach muscles. This slows the rate of stomach emptying when the duodenum contains food.

    7. Describe the location, structure, and functions of the large intestine as part of the excretory system, and state how waste is eliminated.
    The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus. It is about 1.5 meters long, being one-fifth of the whole extent of the intestinal canal. Its caliber is largest at its commencement at the cecum, and gradually diminishes as far as the rectum, where there is regions to the pelvis, where it forms a bend called the sigmoid flexure; from this it is continued along the posterior wall of the pelvis to the anus. The large intestine is divided into the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.a dilatation of considerable size just above the anal canal. It differs from the small intestine in its greater caliber, its more fixed position, its sacculated form, and in possessing certain appendages to its external coat, the appendices epiploicæ. Further, its longitudinal muscular fibres do not form a continuous layer around the gut, but are arranged in three longitudinal bands or tæniæ. The large intestine, in its course, describes an arch that surrounds the convolutions of the small intestine. It commences in the right iliac region, in a dilated part, the cecum. It ascends through the right lumbar and hypochondriac regions to the under surface of the liver; it here takes a bend, the right colic flexure, to the left and passes transversely across the abdomen on the confines of the epigastric and umbilical regions, to the left hypochondriac region; it then bends again, the left colic flexure, and descends through the left lumbar and iliac

    8. Describe how water is absorbed and eliminated through the digestive system and the skin.
    9. Describe the functions of the pancreas, taking into account the islets of langerhan and their secretions.
    10. Describe how the gastric juices, pancreatic juices, bile, intestinal juices and relevant enzymes, break down food molecules into their simplest form.
    11. State the importance of the excretory system in connection to a healthy body, including the importance of fluid intake.
    12. Dexcribe the location, structure and functions of the urinary system.
    13. Draw and label a diagram of a nephron, state its blood supply and volume, filtration and re-absorption.
    14. Describe in detail how the kidneys regulate body fluids and maintain pH in body fluids.

    Unit M66 Skin/ Hair & Nail

    1. Give a definition for the following?
    a. Anagen - The root of the hair is embedded deep in the dermus, is large and has a pigment. This stage lasts for 3 - 6 years. The epidermal cells surrounding the dermal papilla form the germinal matrix or root of the hair. These cells are constantly dividing, and as new cells are formed they push the older ones upwards where they begin to change shape. By the time the cells are about one-third of the way up the follicle they are dead and fully keratinised. A scalp hair will grow actively for between one and a half and seven years (three years being an average growth period). The average growth rate is about half an inch per month. On average 85% of follicles are in the anagen stage.
    b. Catagen - This is the end of the active growth period, and is marked by changes occurring in the follicle. The hair stops growing and becomes detached from the base of the follicle forming a club hair. The hair bulb begins to break down, resulting in the follicle becoming shorter. A small section of the outer root sheath remains in contact with the group of cells that formed the papilla. This period of breakdown or change lasts about three weeks. As the inner root sheath breaks down, the hair remains in the follicle due to its shape. On average, 1% of follicles are in the catagen stage.
    c. Telogen - The section of remaining root sheath still in contact with the papilla is known as the secondary or root germ. It is from this germ that a new hair can grow. The shortened follicle rests for about three months. The hair may be brushed out at this time or at the onset of anagen. On average 14% of follicles are in the telogen stage. After the telogen stage the cycle returns to anagen and the root germ begins to grow downwards and forms a new bulb around the dermal papilla. It is the lower end of the germ that forms the new bulb, producing a new hair. The upper part of the germ forms the new cells that lengthen the follicle below the club hair. The new hair may push the old hair out. Sometimes therefore you may see two hairs in the same follicle.
    d. Medulla – At the center of most hairs is the medulla, made up of large, cuboidal cells, often distinctively colored and interspersed with air pockets.
    e. Fibro-blast – These are large, flat cells consisting of irregular processes, which produce collagen, elastic fibres, and a matrix of extracellular fluid. Secrete proteoglycans as found in dermis layer of skin.
     
    #9 Gussie, May 16, 2006
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2007
  10. Salsera

    Salsera New Member

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    (continuation of Gussie's post - put here on new forum due to text limit)

    f. Hair Cuticle – The cuticle is responsible for much of the mechanical strength of the hair fibre. It consists of scale-shaped layers and protects other hair layers. Human hair typically has 6-8 layers of cuticle.
    g. Cortex - below the cuticle is the cortex, containing pigment and a tough protein called keratin; it forms the bulk of the hair shaft.
    h. Vellus Hair - short, fine, "peach fuzz" body hair. Vellus hair is a very soft and short hair that grows in most places on the human body in both sexes. In Caucasians it is often colourless, or blonde. It is best seen in women and children, as they have less terminal hair to obscure it. Vellus hair is also found in pre-adolescents as well as in male pattern baldness. Vellus hair follicles do not have sebaceous glands.
    i. Terminal hair - Thick and long hair, found on the scalp, armpits and pubic area, as well as on the face, chest, arms and legs (better evident in men).
    j. Lanugo hair – Fine, downy hair that grows on the body to insulate it due to lack of fat. It is normal in gestating fetuses. Lanugo hair is usually shed and replaced by vellus hair at 36-40 weeks gestation. The presence of lanugo in newborns is a sign of premature birth. It is also a common symptom of serious anorexia, as the body attempts to insulate itself as body fat is lost.

    2. Describe the structure of the dermis layer of skin?
    The dermis is a complex structure composed of 2 layers, the more superficial papillary dermis and the deeper reticular dermis. The papillary dermis is thinner, consisting of loose connective tissue containing capillaries, elastic fibres, reticular fibres, and some collagen. The reticular dermis consists of a thicker layer of dense connective tissue containing larger blood vessels, closely interlaced elastic fibres, and coarse bundles of collagen fibres arranged in layers parallel to the surface. The reticular layer also contains fibroblasts, mast cells, nerve endings, lymphatics, and epidermal appendages. Surrounding the components of the dermis is the gel-like ground substance, composed of mucopolysaccharides, chondroitin sulfates, and glycoproteins. The deep surface of the dermis is highly irregular and borders the subcutaneous layer, the panniculus adiposus, which additionally cushions the skin.

    3. Describe the structure & functions of subcutaneous layer?
    The subcutaneous layer below the dermis consists of loose connective tissue, including asipose, and much fat. It acts as a protective cushion and helps to insulate the body by monitoring heat gain and heat loss. If this layer is overdeveloped, the signs of obesity or being overweight occur.

    4. Describe the structure & functions of epidermis layers?
    Three principal functions:
    § protecting the body from the environment, particularly the sun
    § preventing excessive water loss from the body
    § protecting the body from infection.
    The epidermis contains no blood vessels and is entirely dependent on the underlying dermis for nutrient delivery and waste disposal via diffusion through the dermoepidermal junction. The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium consisting primarily of keratinocytes in progressive stages of differentiation from deeper to more superficial layers. The named layers of the epidermis include the stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. The stratum germinativum or basal layer is immediately superficial to the dermoepidermal junction. This single cell layer of keratinocytes is attached to the basement membrane via hemidesmosomes.
    § Stratum Corneum (Cornified Layer) - Outermost layer of epidermis, composed mostly of keratin (fibrous protein); Cells desquamated (27 days after production). Cells of the stratum corneum are the largest and most abundant of the epidermis. This layer ranges in thickness from 15-100 or more cells depending on anatomic location and is the primary protective barrier from the external environment.
    § Stratum Lucidum - (present only in very thick skin)
    § Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer) - Darker layer with intracellular granules; Produces keratin.
    § Stratum Spinosum (Prickle Cell Layer) - Composed of keratinocytes; Cells produced by basal layer and growing; Keratin production starts.
    § Stratum Germinativum (Stratum Basale, Basal Cell Layer) - Innermost layer of epidermis; In this layer column shaped cells divide and push already formed cells into higher layers. As the cells move into the higher layers, they flatten and eventually die; Forms the prickle cells in the layer above; Melanocytes produced here.

    Also found here are the Dendritic (Langerhans) cells – These cells are involved in the epidermal immune system. They engulf foreign material that invades the epidermis and migrate out of the skin to stimulate an immune response.
    Basal cells - Small cells found at the bottom of the epidermis. Earlier it was believed that basal cell carcinoma is derived from these cells. As of this writing basal cell carcinoma is thought to arise from non-differentiated cells from the basal cell layer.

    5. What is the function of Mast cells?
    These cells secrete Histamine, which reacts to allergens in the body or skin damage. They also cause blood vessels to dilate thereby increasing blood flow to area in most need.

    6. Describe Keratinisation
    The replacement process is normally an orderly movement of cells from the stratum granulosum upward to the stratum corneum. On the way through progression of the four upper layers, the cells leave their nutrient supply behind, produce keratin, lose their nuclei and granules and die, forming scales in the outermost hard surface on the skin. This continuous process of epithelial proliferation and cell replacement is known as keratinization.

    7. What is a Melanocyte? Describe its function
    The main function of melanocytes is to produce melanin. Melanocytes are scattered between keratinocytes of the stratum germinativum, the deeper layers of the stratum spinosum and within hair follicles. They are located at the basal layer and are in contact with the basement membrane, but do not contain desmosomes. They are pale-staining with a large ovoid nucleus and abundant cytoplasm from which long processes extend into spaces between the keratinocytes in the basal and lower prickle cell layer. Tyrosinase is synthesized on melanocyte ribosomes and transported into the ER lumen to form vesicles (melanosomes) in the Golgi zone. Melanosomes are ovoid and contain melanin granules deposited on a protein matrix. Melanin is the polymerized product of tyrosinase following conversion of tyrosine to DOPA. Transfer of melanin to keratinocytes probably occurs by phagocytosis of the melanin granules released from the melanocytes by exocytosis. Skin color results from differences in the extent of melanization, size and degree of aggregation of the melanosomes in the epidermal cells.

    8. What effects do the following have on the skin?
    a. Age - Skin becomes rougher; may develop lesions such as benign tumors; becomes slack through the loss of the elastic tissue (elastin and collagen) in the skin with age causes the skin to hang loosely; Skin becomes more transparent as we age. This is caused by thinning of the epidermis (surface layer of the skin); Skin becomes more fragile as we age. This is caused by a flattening of the area where the epidermis and dermis (layer of skin under the epidermis) come together; Skin becomes more easily bruised, due to thinning blood vessel walls.
    b. Sunlight (UV) - UV exposure causes thickening and thinning of the skin. Thick skin is found in coarse wrinkles especially on the back of the neck that do not disappear when the skin is stretched. A condition called solar elastosis is seen as thickened, coarse wrinkling and yellow discoloration of the skin. A common effect of UV exposure is thinning of the skin causing fine wrinkles, easy bruising, and skin tearing. UV exposure can also cause white spots especially on the legs, but also on the backs of the hands and arms, as melanocytes are destroyed. The most noticeable sun-induced pigment change is a freckle or solar lentigo. Light-skinned people tend to freckle more noticeably. A freckle is caused when the melanin-producing cell, or melanocyte, is damaged causing it to get bigger
    c. Hormonal conditions – Can cause increases in sebum production and blocking of sebaceous glands. Infection then sets in causing inflammation and the forming of spots and blackheads. Adolescent skin problems can often be explained by an increase of the male sex hormones.
    d. Diet – Balanced & nutritional diet is essential to healthy skin. Vitamins A & C for example, help to nourish and feed skin, heal wounds and rebuild skin tissues (Vit C).
    e. Chemicals – Acids and Alkalis can cause skin burns and chemical detergents may lead to allergic reactions, sensitivity, or an exacerbation of skin conditions including dermatitis, eczema, and inflammation.
    f. Medication – May have side effects, cause skin reactions and rashes. Some steroids leave skin fragile and thin. Hormonal imbalances caused by medications can exacerbate skin conditions and pustule formation.
    g. Environment – Pollutants in the environment can cause skin pores to become blocked and pustules to form; Skin can become dry and prone to damage; Lack of natural light can lead to Vitamin D deficiency and possible Seasonal Affective Disorder.

    9. Describe the functions of the skin using SHAPES?

    SECRETION (sebum is secreted by the sebaceous glands) -
    Two types of duct glands contained in the skin that pull out
    minerals from the blood to create new substances. The suderiferous (sweat) glands
    and the sebaceous (oil) glands; Oil glands secrete sebum through little sacs whose ducts open in to the hair follicles. These glands are found in all parts of the body with the exception of the palms and soles. The oily substance produced by the oil glands is
    called sebum. Sebum flows out of the hair follicle onto the skin, helping it to reduce evaporation and making it less absorbent. It lubricates the skin and preserves the pliability of the hair; Sweat glands excrete perspiration. This secretion is odorless when excreted, but in a short period of time produces an offensive odor due to the bacteria on the skin’s surface feeding on the fats of its secretion. Perspiration is
    controlled by the nervous system.
    HEAT REGULATION (maintains body temperature of 98.6) – Heat and cold receptors are located in the skin. When the body temperature rises, the hypothalamus sends a nerve signal to the sweat-producing skin glands, causing them to release about 1-2 liters of water per hour, cooling the body. The hypothalamus also causes dilation of the blood vessels of the skin, allowing more blood to flow into those areas, causing heat to be convected away from the skin surface. When body temperature falls, the sweat glands constrict and sweat production decreases. If the body temperature continues to fall, the body will engage in thermiogenesis, or heat generation, by raising the body's metabolic rate and by shivering.
    ABSORPTION (substances can enter the body through the skin and affect it to a minor degree) - The skin is selectively soluble to fat-soluble substances such as vitamins A, D, E, and K, as well as steroid hormones such as estrogen. These substances enter the bloodstream through the capillary networks in the skin.
    PROTECTION (from bacterial invasion etc) - The skin's primary functions are to serve as a barrier to the entry of microbes and viruses, and to prevent water and extracellular fluid loss. Acidic secretions from skin glands also retard the growth of fungi. Melanocytes form a second barrier: protection from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. When a microbe penetrates the skin (or when the skin is breached by a cut) the inflammatory response occurs.

    ELIMINATION (sweat glands excrete perspiration) – Waste products are eliminated from the body via sebum and sweat as discussed. While its primary function is temperature control, eccrine sweat also provides a useful method of removing acids and some waste products (toxins) from the body.

    SENSATION (Response to heat, cold, pressure, and pain) – Sensory nerves are receptors and send messages to the brain causing reactions to heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain; Motor nerve fibres, attached to the hair follicles, are distributed to the arrector pilli muscles, which may cause goose flesh when you are frightened
    or cold; The secretory nerve fibres regulate the excretion of perspiration from the
    sweat glands and regulate the flow of sebum to the surface of the skin.

    10. What effect do the sebaceous glands have on hair?
    These secrete the oily substance Sebum, which lubricates hair, helping to maintain its elasticity.

    11. What effect do hormones have on hair?
    · Men who have been castrated have increased hair growth. The introduction of male hormones can lead to hair loss. These results were discovered following experiments on humans and animals.
    · The hormone mechanism works as follows : the endocrine gland secretes a hormonal substance that is released into the blood. This fixes on to the target cells, those of the hair roots. There are receptors on the surface of the cells that capture the hormone and when the hormone receptor block becomes a whole, it starts off an "information" reaction which is sent via a protein in the middle of the cell which modifies it's behaviour.
    · The most important changes are carried out by the sex hormonees, especially the androgens or male hormones. These hormones are turned into dihydrotestosterone, via an enzyme called alpha-reductase 5. This dihydrotestosterone is made up of the carrier terminal that will meet the receptors of the cell wall of the hair root cells.Better knowledge of this alpha-reductase 5, as well as the receptors, has allowed significant progress to be made in treating androgenic alopecia in man.
    · The female hormones, oestrogen and progesterone have a lesser effect.
    · Thyroid hormones, expecially in the case of hyperthyroidism, and hypophyseal hormones and sometimes panhypopituitarism, can sometimes play a role in the modification of hair cycles.

    ------------

    Salsera's post:


    did anyone who sat the vctc anatomy & physiology this month remember the questions ?
     
    #10 Salsera, May 26, 2006
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2007
  11. candleglow

    candleglow New Member

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    A & P Help needed with some questions

    Hi all fellow students,

    My exams are fast approaching and I am in need of some help with a few questions posted on HP.

    Well here it goes:

    1. Which hormone do the ovaries stimulate during puberty?

    ( I am confused by this because not sure if ovaries stimulate production of oestrogen and progesterone after they have been stimulated by the hormone follicles stim hormone and leutinising hormone.- If you do know the answer to this please can you explain it a little?)

    2.What gland controls calcium levels in blood?
    a) Thyroid b) parathyroid
    c) Thymus d) pineal

    ( again confused because thyroid maintaince of calcium balance (louise Tucker) and parathyroid Maintence of calcium in plasma (lousie tucker) Therefore is it B?

    3) Arteries and veins of lower arm and hand
    a) Digital/saphenous(definately not) b)Cephalic and basilic (not sure if these are both veins)
    c) median/sciatic (def. not) d) humeral/ radial ( is there an artery called humeral)

    4) Now an embarrising one to - How often does a women ovulate
    a) 28 days b)every 14 days
    c) 30-60 days (def not) d) never

    I think answer is a but only doubt myself because on the fourteenth day ovulation occurs.

    5)What areas do the submandibular nodes drain?
    a) Temple and ear b) Lower lip and chin
    c) Nose eyelids and skin of face, d) Lips cheeks and nose

    Still confused on what essential organic substance is for body

    carbs, proteins , vitamins or minerals

    How long does it take cells from basal layer to reach top layer ?



    Thanks all- Exams in just over a week now - I only hope i can help you all just as much as i have help from you.
     
  12. ju79

    ju79 New Member

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    RE: A & P Help needed with some questions

    1. Which hormone do the ovaries stimulate during puberty?
    when a girl reaches puberty, her ovaries grow up tp 10 times larger.as the ovaries grow, they release the hormon oestrogen, which is responsible for the bodily changes at puberty....(quoted my book)

    2.What gland controls calcium levels in blood?
    parathyroid

    3) Arteries and veins of lower arm and hand
    b)Cephalic and basilic

    How often does a women ovulate
    a) 28 days

    i dont know the submandibular one....
    i think the next one is carbs
    3-6 weeks for the basal layer

    Hope that helps!
     
  13. Girlzstuff

    Girlzstuff New Member

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    RE: A & P Help needed with some questions

    Hi,

    The question may be phrased wrong as the Sub-Mental drains the lower lip and chin while the Sub-Mandibular drains the neck..

    Hope this helps...
     
  14. Vix

    Vix New Member

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    RE: vtct A&P 2006

    I remeber the following:

    What type of bone is the vertabrae?

    What is bone growth called?

    What type of joint is the hip joint?

    Functions of the kidneys?

    Muscles of the face?

    Ermmmmmmmmm

    The rest will come back to me lol xx
     
  15. sweetpea

    sweetpea New Member

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    RE: vtct A&P 2006

    i sat my a&p exam papet today VTCT 16th.june.2006 here are all the questions


    1. the vertabra is an example of ? (irregular bone)
    2. thrombocytes are? (help with clotting)
    3. lymph drains back in to the blood through the? (lymph ducts or nodes?)
    4. the part of the Nervous system which works closley with the respiritory system for inhalation is? (medulla oblangata)
    5. carbs are digested to give? (glucose)
    6. cells containing keratin can be found in which layer of the skin? (granulosum)
    7. the synovial joint of the hip is a? (ball and socket joint)
    8. the only vein to carryoxygenated blood is? (pulmonary vein)
    9. skin manafacturs? (vitamin D)
    10. alveoli in the lungs: (increases surface area for diffusion)
    11. the olfactory receptors detect? (chemical particles)
    12. the smallest form of digested protien is? (amino acids)
    13. which is a list of all bones found in the skull? (zygomatic, maxillae, mandible, frontal)
    14. what is hair composed of? (keratin)
    15. which of the following listsis correct for kidney functions? (filters blood, forms urine, maintains PH, regulates fluid and salt balance)
    16. collagen and elastine are forms of? (connective tissue)
    17. what fluid do veins carry? (deoxygenated blood)
    18. what is the proper medical term used for breathing in? (inhalation)
    19. sweat and sebum together make up a protective layer on the skin. what is it called? (acid mantle)
    20.what set of bones form the wrist?(carples)
    21. what is the muscle attached to the hair? (arrector pilli)
    22. where does digestion start? (Mouth)
    23. what is the name of the membrane that covers the lungs (plura)
    24. how does an endocrine gland secreate itsa hormone? ( straight in to the blood stream)
    25. the name given to bown growth is? (ossification)


    hope this is a help!!!!
     
  16. sweetpea

    sweetpea New Member

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    EXAM 2006 A+P VTCT 25questions

    i sat my a&p exam papet today VTCT 16th.june.2006 here are all the questions


    1. the vertabra is an example of ? (irregular bone)
    2. thrombocytes are? (help with clotting)
    3. lymph drains back in to the blood through the? (lymph ducts or nodes?)
    4. the part of the Nervous system which works closley with the respiritory system for inhalation is? (medulla oblangata)
    5. carbs are digested to give? (glucose)
    6. cells containing keratin can be found in which layer of the skin? (granulosum)
    7. the synovial joint of the hip is a? (ball and socket joint)
    8. the only vein to carryoxygenated blood is? (pulmonary vein)
    9. skin manafacturs? (vitamin D)
    10. alveoli in the lungs: (increases surface area for diffusion)
    11. the olfactory receptors detect? (chemical particles)
    12. the smallest form of digested protien is? (amino acids)
    13. which is a list of all bones found in the skull? (zygomatic, maxillae, mandible, frontal)
    14. what is hair composed of? (keratin)
    15. which of the following listsis correct for kidney functions? (filters blood, forms urine, maintains PH, regulates fluid and salt balance)
    16. collagen and elastine are forms of? (connective tissue)
    17. what fluid do veins carry? (deoxygenated blood)
    18. what is the proper medical term used for breathing in? (inhalation)
    19. sweat and sebum together make up a protective layer on the skin. what is it called? (acid mantle)
    20.what set of bones form the wrist?(carples)
    21. what is the muscle attached to the hair? (arrector pilli)
    22. where does digestion start? (Mouth)
    23. what is the name of the membrane that covers the lungs (plura)
    24. how does an endocrine gland secreate itsa hormone? ( straight in to the blood stream)
    25. the name given to bown growth is? (ossification)


    hope this is a help!!!! [align=right]
    [/align]
     
  17. angeldust

    angeldust New Member

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    RE: VTCT A&P EXAM PAPERS

    June 2006 paper as posted on another thread


    1. the vertabra is an example of ? (irregular bone)
    2. thrombocytes are? (help with clotting)
    3. lymph drains back in to the blood through the? (lymph ducts or nodes?)
    4. the part of the Nervous system which works closley with the respiritory system for inhalation is? (medulla oblangata)
    5. carbs are digested to give? (glucose)
    6. cells containing keratin can be found in which layer of the skin? (granulosum)
    7. the synovial joint of the hip is a? (ball and socket joint)
    8. the only vein to carryoxygenated blood is? (pulmonary vein)
    9. skin manafacturs? (vitamin D)
    10. alveoli in the lungs: (increases surface area for diffusion)
    11. the olfactory receptors detect? (chemical particles)
    12. the smallest form of digested protien is? (amino acids)
    13. which is a list of all bones found in the skull? (zygomatic, maxillae, mandible, frontal)
    14. what is hair composed of? (keratin)
    15. which of the following listsis correct for kidney functions? (filters blood, forms urine, maintains PH, regulates fluid and salt balance)
    16. collagen and elastine are forms of? (connective tissue)
    17. what fluid do veins carry? (deoxygenated blood)
    18. what is the proper medical term used for breathing in? (inhalation)
    19. sweat and sebum together make up a protective layer on the skin. what is it called? (acid mantle)
    20.what set of bones form the wrist?(carples)
    21. what is the muscle attached to the hair? (arrector pilli)
    22. where does digestion start? (Mouth)
    23. what is the name of the membrane that covers the lungs (plura)
    24. how does an endocrine gland secreate itsa hormone? ( straight in to the blood stream)
    25. the name given to bown growth is? (ossification)

    Hope this helps
     
  18. aimee_1707

    aimee_1707 New Member

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    A & P EXAM SEPT 2006 VCTC

    This is my Exam Paper for VCTC I sat it last week (Friday 29th Sept 2006) I really hope this helps you x
    1. the vertabra is an example of ? (irregular bone)
    2. thrombocytes are? (help with clotting)
    3. lymph drains back in to the blood through the? (lymph ducts or nodes?)
    4. the part of the Nervous system which works closley with the respiritory system for inhalation is? (medulla oblangata)
    5. carbs are digested to give? (glucose)
    6. cells containing keratin can be found in which layer of the skin? (granulosum)
    7. the synovial joint of the hip is a? (ball and socket joint)
    8. the only vein to carryoxygenated blood is? (pulmonary vein)
    9. skin manafacturs? (vitamin D)
    10. alveoli in the lungs: (increases surface area for diffusion)
    11. the olfactory receptors detect? (chemical particles)
    12. the smallest form of digested protien is? (amino acids)
    13. which is a list of all bones found in the skull? (zygomatic, maxillae, mandible, frontal)
    14. what is hair composed of? (keratin)
    15. which of the following listsis correct for kidney functions? (filters blood, forms urine, maintains PH, regulates fluid and salt balance)
    16. collagen and elastine are forms of? (connective tissue)
    17. what fluid do veins carry? (deoxygenated blood)
    18. what is the proper medical term used for breathing in? (inhalation)
    19. sweat and sebum together make up a protective layer on the skin. what is it called? (acid mantle)
    20.what set of bones form the wrist?(carples)
    21. what is the muscle attached to the hair? (arrector pilli)
    22. where does digestion start? (Mouth)
    23. what is the name of the membrane that covers the lungs (plura)
    24. how does an endocrine gland secreate itsa hormone? ( straight in to the blood stream)
    25. the name given to bown growth is? (ossification)
     
  19. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

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    Posted by tamsinwardle

    1)Another name for the cheekbone
    [*]maxilla
    [*]mandible
    [*]Zygomatic Arch
    [*]Parietal
    2)Haemoglobin is found in
    [*]white bllod cells
    [*]red blood cells
    [*]arteries
    [*]veins
    3)Erythrocyte cells
    [*]fight infection
    [*]transport o2 as oxyheamoglobin
    [*]blood clotting
    [*]form collagen
    4)what does a Lymph node do
    [*]collect and distribute waste
    [*]filtration and phagocytes
    [*]transport lymph
    [*]transport lymph to veins
    5)sympathetic nervous system affects heart by
    [*]accelerating the action of the heart
    [*]constrict blood flow to heart
    [*]slows down the action of the heart
    [*]lowers bp
    6)Which is a fat enzyme
    [*]Protease
    [*]lipase
    [*]amylase
    [*]carbohydrate
    7)which organ produces the most heat
    [*]lungs
    [*]liver
    [*]spleen
    [*]heart
    8)collagen and elastin are
    [*]connective tissue
    [*]skin
    [*]fat
    [*]nerve endings
    9)Epidermis contains
    [*]elastin
    [*]melanocytes
    [*]lymph vessels
    [*]sweat glands
    10)Bone tissue is known as
    [*]compact/ cancellous
    [*]compact/ cancerous
    [*]columnar/ cancellous
    [*]dense/ stratified
    11)elbow joint is know as a
    [*]Hinge
    [*]Ball and socket
    [*]Slightly movable
    [*]Fixed
    12)the function of white blood cells is to
    [*]carry 02
    [*]defence against disease
    [*]carry co2
    [*]blood clotting
    13)what found in the Skin protects us from UV radiation
    [*]melatonin
    [*]melanium
    [*]malic acid
    [*]melanin
    14)the 2 gases exchanged in lungs are
    [*]co2/ carbon monoxide
    [*]co2/ nitrogen
    [*]co2/ o2
    [*]o2/ nitrogen
    15)olfactory receptory detect
    [*]chemical particles
    [*]UV light
    [*]touch
    [*]pressure
    16)Vena cava is a
    [*]vein - o2 to heart
    [*]artery - deox blood to heart
    [*]vein deox blood to heart
    [*]artery - 02 away from heart
    17)hair in nose is known as
    [*]cillia
    [*]mucus
    [*]goblet cells
    [*]epiglotis
    18)function of ureter
    [*]connects kidney to bladder
    [*]stores and collect urine
    [*]store and collect salt
    [*]connects bladder to outside
    19)the areas of vertibrae are
    [*]thoracic, ulnar, sacred, cervicle
    [*]sacral, lumbar, cervicle, thoracic
    [*]conial, thoracic, secular, lumbar
    [*]circular, sacral, thoracic, humbral
    20)how are smells transmitted to the brain
    [*]nasal hairs
    [*]mucus
    [*]olfactory lobe
    [*]olfactory bulb
    21)Which of these statemnets is most true
    [*]Thyroxin is excreated by the parathyroid
    [*]thyroid is situated slightly above the heart
    [*]thyroxin controls metabolism
    [*]Thyroid secreations include corticosteroids
    22)bone in the lower leg is
    [*]fibula
    [*]ulna
    [*]femur
    [*]humerus
    23)the correct digestive tract
    [*]Stomach, LI, pharynx, SI
    [*]Stomach LI, SI, Rectum
    [*]Osopagus, stomach, SI, LI
    [*]Mouth, Osophagus, LI, SI
    24)2 outer layers of the skin are

    [*]dermis/sudiferous
    [*]dermis/epidermis
    [*]inner/ outer
    [*]melanin/ pheomelin
    25)the lower Intestine
    [*]removes waste food products
    [*]digests protiens and fats
    [*]stores vitamins
    [*]helps weight regulation

    Answers
    1c 2b 3b 4b 5a 6b 7b 8a 9a 10a 11a 12b 13d 14c 15a 16c 17a 18a 19b 20d 21c 22a 23c 24b 25b
     
    #19 Gussie, Jan 3, 2007
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2007
  20. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

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    16
    RE: VCTC Anatomy & Physiology

    Nope - its one posted last year but trying to bring the exam papers together so you don't need to dig about looking for them. There are many exam papers for each subject so there's no set paper for each year, you'll find that the same questions come up time and time again.

    Nice going on the test though, if you can get that now, imagine how well you'll do on the exam!
     
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