Long list of past exam questions - mixed papers Bunch of questions copied and pasted from the old forums for various subjects. quote: Interrelationships between systems - for ITEC A&P Muscular – Most simply said the muscular system would cease to function without the nervous system. Unlike the visceral muscles or cardiac muscle both of which have other controlling systems somatic motor fibres are IT for skeletal muscle activation and regulation. Somatic nerve fibres not only tell the muscle when to contract but how strongly. Additionally as the nervous system makes its initial synapses with skeletal muscle fibre it determines their fate as fast or slow fibre which forever after affects our muscle potential for speed and endurance. The interactions of the various brain regions and inputs of stretch receptors also determine our grace and how smooth and coordinated we are. Nonetheless keep in mind that as long as the skeletal muscles effector cells are healthy they help determine the viability of neurons synapsing with them. The relationship is truly synergistic. Respiratory System- Another system that depends entirely on the nervous system for its function is the respiratory system which continuously refreshes the blood with oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide waste to the sea of air that surround us. Neural centres in the medulla and pons both initiate and maintain the tidelike rhythm of air flushing into and out of our lungs by activating skeletal muscles that change the volume (thus the gas pressure) within our lungs. If some of those CNS centres are damaged reflexes set up by stretch receptors in the lungs can still maintain the vital function of breathing. Digestive System – Although the digestive system responds to many different types of controls, eg hormones, local pH, and irritating chemicals or bacteria the parasympathetic nervous system inputs, sympathetic neural activity, which inhibits normal digestion (and hence nourishment of the body) would be unopposed. So important are the parasympathetic controls that some of the parasympathetic neurons area actually located in the walls of the digestive organs in so called intrinsic plexuses. Thus even if all the extrinsic controls are severed the intrinsic mechanisms can still maintain this crucial body function. The role the digestive system plays for the nervous system is the same it offers to all othe rbody systems – it sees that ingested foodstuff gets digested and loaded into the blood for cell use. Skin: sympathetic division of the ANS regulates sweat glands and blood vessels of the skin (therefore heat loss retention) Skin serves as heat loss surface. Skeletal: Nerves innervate bones. Bones serve as depot for calcium needed for neural function and protects CNS structures. Endocrine: Sympathetic division of the ANS activates the adrenal medulla; hypothalmus helps regulate the activity of the anterior pituitary gland and produces two hormones. Hormones influence neuronal imbalances. Cardiovascular: Ans helps regulate heart rate and blood pressure. Cardiovascular system provides blood carrying oxygen and nutrients to the nervous system. Carries away waste. lymphatic: Nerves innervate lymphoid organs; the brain plays a role in regulating immune function. Lymphatic vessels carry away leaked tissue fluids from tissues surrounding the nervous system structures. Immune elements protect all body organs from pathogens. Urinary: ANS regulates bladder emptying and renal blood pressure. Kidneys help to dispose of metabolic wastes and maintains proper electrolyte composition and pH of blood for neural action. Reproductive ANS regulates sexual erection in males erection of the clitoris in females. Testosterone causes masculination of the brain and underlies the sex drive and aggressive behaviour. quote: Oral Questions asked during massage exams 1) What massage movements are you performing? 2) What benefits are these movements for the client? 3) How often would you recommend a massage to your client? 4) Is it better for a massage in the morning and evening? 5) What Lymph node are you currenly draining to? 6) Contra-indications to massage? 7) Name all the massage movements you know?. Eg effleurage, petrissage..... 8) Lots of questions on the bones of the body, especially the hand, wrist and ankle quote: ITEC Sports Massage - Hamstrings Question Paul Crick : Try contacting your local amateur football association they will have one or two people with this type of problem it is not imperative that it is an injury as long as they are having problems in the area which most footballers do. The main problem with hamstrings is over tightness, this is exasperated by sports people who will not spend the necessary time warming up prior to activity this can lead to a snapped hamstring which is very painful and leaves that leg a lot weaker than the other, but usually it just leads to strain from over reaching a tight muscle. The muscles in this type of situation would be better called hamropes for that is what they feel like very hard and very tender but if they want to play later in the week then it would be your job to re-stretch them and get them ready for work. Typical reaction, to call you a not very present name and try and get of the couch, but they usually thank you later when the get of the couch and are feeling a lot better and they can walk ok, you learn to turn a deaf ear to it. hope that helps. quote: The Blood by N/A Q1. List the functions of the blood. A1. It Transports · Oxygen from lungs to body cells. · Carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. · Nutrients from the digestive tract to the body cells. · Metabolic waste products from the cells to excretory organs. · Hormones from endocrine glands to cells. · Any drugs taken for medical purposes. It Regulates . The water content of cells. · Body heat maintaining normal body temperature. · PH by means of buffers. It Protects · Against disease and infection by action of lincocytes which destroy micro-organisms. Through phagocytic action and production of antibodys. · Against blood loss by the process of blood clotting. Q2. What is the function of the following? 1) Erythrocytes; 2) Leucocytes; 3) Thrombocytes; 1) Erythrocytes; Red blood cells, which contain haemoglobin that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. 2) Leucocytes; White blood cells which protect the body against invading micro-organisms, they play a part in the body’s defence system and immune reaction. 3) Thrombocytes; or Platelets; they play an important role in blood clotting. Q3. Define the term “Erythema” A3 Erythema; Or flushing of the skin, the body loses heat via the skin. If the body becomes too cold the arteries constrict preventing heat loss. q4. Produce a diagram showing the arteries and veins serving the neck and head. Q5. Explain high and low blood pressure and how they may affect massage treatment. Blood pressure is the force or pressure, which the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. · Hypertension – High blood pressure. · Hypotension – Low blood pressure. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) is where the BP is higher then the normal 120 over 80, there are several causes of high blood pressure. · Poor diet, processed food’s (high salt content) · Smoking · Drugs · Exercise · Emotions (Anger, Excitement, Stress, and Fright). · Pain · Diseases (Kidneys, Adrenal Cortex, Heart, and Lungs) · Aorta problems (Narrowing of the aorta or Structure) · Excessive alcohol. High blood pressure will affect the type of massage given; the clients GP should be consulted and written should be sought in the case of a medical condition. If treating a client with high BP the therapist must remain vigilant of the condition. · Mentally prepare the client before starting the massage . In stress related high BP, massage can be beneficial · Light to Medium massage should be used · Slow relaxing massage is called for · No invigorating movements i.e. percussion, hacking, cupping, or beating · Attention should be concentrated around the back, shoulders, large muscles of the legs and solar plexus · No stimulating refreshments should be offered after the massage, Bottled spring water is an ideal drink to offer. Low Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Low BP should not be considered as too much of a problem as high BP. Although the clients GP may still need to be consulted depending on the severity of the condition. Some causes of low BP are; · Shock · Haemorrhage · Addisons Disease (Adrenal gland problems) The affects of massage on clients with Low BP, which you must not leave clients unattended, as they might feel dizzy or light headed. A medium depth massage will help the venous flow, which in turn will help to clear the interstitial spaces of a build up toxins caused by low BP. Effects of massage - Angelfish OEDEMA Light effleurage to help drain lymph by mechanically draining from the superficial to the deep vessels. Check GP Approval Chronic oedema may benefit from vibration techniques. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Deep effleurage and cross friction. Breaks up adhesions and assists joint mobility. GP Approval & don't carry out in acute stages. FIBROSIS As a preventative measure use Effleurage and Petrissage to increase circulation and loosen up adhesions in the muscle. Often caused by build up of lactic acid. In chronic fibrosis, deep friction and thumb effleurage can be used to stretch the muscles transversely.