AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

Discussion in 'Past Exam Papers' started by Gussie, Nov 30, 2003.

  1. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
    Likes Received:
    AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

    Well, we've just handed in our first assignments for AOR Reflexology and I believe the information we've found will tie in with the exam papers we will eventually have to complete. Not sure if I put way too much detail in, the writing style isn't the best in the world, but here's my take. Hope it's helpful.


    History of Reflexology

    Although it is widely believed that the seeds of reflexology were sown over 4000 years ago, it was only recognised by the ICM in 1985. A number of dedicated practitioners are responsible for the therapy it has become today.

    Briefly describe the major contributions made to reflexology by the following people.
    Dr William Fitzgerald
    Dr Joe Shelby Riley
    Hanne Marquardt

    William Fitzgerald developed ‘Zone therapy’, which led to detailed research into the effects of pressure on various parts of the body. Dr Joe Shelby Riley further developed the work of William Fitzgerald and trained Eunice Ingham amongst others and helped to develop Reflexology charts as we know them today. In turn, Hanne Marquardt, who was trained by Eunice Ingham formulated the transverse zones of the foot.

    Describe the important principle established by Sir Charles Sherrington (1861 – 1952) in his work, which later went on to win him the Nobel Prize. “The integrative Action of the Nervous System”.
    Approximately when did this take place?

    In 1932 Sir Charles Sherrington won the Nobel Prize for his discoveries regarding the function of neurons. He proved that the whole nervous system and body adjusts to a stimulus when it is applied to any part of the body. In 1906 he published ‘The Integrative Nervous System’ to support this.

    Give the location of what is widely regarded as the earliest pictorial evidence of work on the reflexes on the feet and hands. Give the approximate date of this evidence.
    It is believed that the earlist pictorial evidence of work upon the reflexes of the feet and hands was found in the tomb of the physician Ankhmahar in 1897 in Saqqara in Egypt. The inscription is said to say ‘Don’t hurt me’ and the practioners reply ‘I shall act so you shall praise me’. It is believed that Ankhamars tomb was constructed in 2330BC

    Eunice Ingham is widely regarded as the “mother of reflexology”
    I With whom did she initially train and work
    II What are regarded as two of her main contributions to reflexology
    III Give the title of her two published books
    Who first used the term ‘reflexology’ for our therapy?

    Eunice Ingham is often decribed as the ‘Mother of Reflexology’ as it was as a result of her work with Dr Riley that the term ‘Reflexology’ was adopted as a name for this new therapy. Originally she had called it the’Ingham Method of Compression Massage’. She was initially trained by and later worked with Dr Joseph Riley a practitioner of Zone Therapy and in turn she trained Doreen Bailey. She spent a great deal of time giving seminars, teaching reflexology and creating and publishing reflexology charts. She is also responsible for two groundbreaking books ‘Stories the Feet can tell’ and ‘Stories the Feet have told’. The medical profession, however were hard to convince and in1968at the age of 80, she was charged with practising medicine without a licence.

    Who first devised the theory that the body is divided into longitudinal sections?
    What are these divisions called, and how many are there?

    William Fitzgerald, an ear nose and throat specialist is the founder of Zone Therapy. He discovered that the application of pressure on various zones of the body would have an anaesthetic effect upon another part of the body and in many cases it also relieved the underlying cause of the pain. He therefore realised that the body was divided into 10 longitudinal sections, which he named ‘zones’. There are five zones on each side of the body. Each zone starts at the crown of the head and run longitudinally down to the toes and fingertips.

    What experiments were done to demonstrate the existence of links between different parts of the body within these divisions?
    When were these ideas introduced to the USA?
    What was the name of the therapy based on these ideas?
    In order to prove the existence of these zones, Dr Fitzgerald used clamps, probes and rubber bands to apply pressure to his patients in order to produce anaesthesia in specific parts of the body. In 1917 he published his book entitled ‘Zone therapy’.

    Give two experiences / sources of knowledge which may have influenced Dr William Fitzgerald in his development of Zone Therapy.
    It is thought that William Fitzgerald was influenced by the practices of the Cherokee and other Native Americans and also the principles of acupuncture and acupressure which form 2 elements of Taoist teaching.

    Give three influences which are affecting the developing of our therapy nowadays.
    Reflexology is growing in both popularity and credibility as the medical profession is taking a more active interest in this therapy. The NHS has recently recognised Reflexology as a valid treatment for stress related illness. CAM is also working towards raising standards in the complementary therapy field and as a result much regulation is being brought into place. It is also getting much harder to gain insurance without taking a fully recognised and accredited course, this is to ensure that all therapists are fully qualified and meet national standards of competency.

    Give two ways in which the Eastern method of reflexology (E.g. Chinese Rwo Shur) differed from that practised in the West.
    Although the principles of reflexology may be similar across the world, the Eastern methods are somewhat different to those practiced in the West. Rwo Shur, as an example differes greatly in practice as a combination of pressure techniques and thumb sliding is used. Special sticks may also be used to provide pressure and is more stimulating than reflexology practised in the West.
    Metamorphic technique is applied to the hands, feet and the head and was developed by a reflexologist named Robert St John. Light touch is applied to the spinal reflexes to promote good health.
    Vacuflex combines Chinese cupping, reflexology and Meridian Therapy to form a unique therapy which is both balancing and stimulating. Special boots are worn which have a vacuum effect, which when removed leave an imprint on the sole of the foot. Treatment may be carried out in just five minutes and the marks left last less than a minute and point to any problem areas.

    Give two practices which are related to or which developed from reflexology but which are regarded in the UK as separate therapies.
    Further work has been carried out in recent years, which has led to the development of a number of new techniques or extensions to traditional foot reflexology. Hand reflexology and ear reflexology both use similar mapping principles to stimulate different parts of the body. VRT is carried out on the tops of the feet is especially suited to the disabled and elderly for whom traditional reflexology may be uncomfortable owing to the required seating position.


    An Introductory Guide to Reflexology, Louis Tucker,
    Indian Head Massage, Helen McGuinness, 2002, Hodder and Stoughton
    The New Book of Massage, Lucy Lidell & Sarah Thomas, 2000, Ebury Press
    The Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Complementary Health, Nikki Bradford, 1996, Hamlyn

    And another..


    Holistic Approach

    Mention five points that are distinguishing factors of the holistic approach to health.- The term ‘holistic’ comes from the Greek word ‘holos’ which means whole or complete.
    - The holistic approach to health can be looked at as a complete and all encompassing approach to health which caters not only for the physical well-being of an individual but also their mental and spiritual health, which is where the term ‘mind body and spirit’ is derived from.
    - It is believed by holistic practitioners that a problem cannot be treated in isolation. Therapy may therefore take many forms in order to restore homeostasis and health., -
    - A visit to a therapist alone is not sufficient for recovery, it is also important to examine lifestyle and mental attitude and make positive changes to aid health.
    - Sometimes when someone is ill, the illness may affect many different parts of the body in some way, therefore an imbalance in one area may require broader treatment for success. Healing should therefore come from within and encompass the mind, body and spirit.
    - Whereas a GP may prescribe a drug to treat the symptoms of a disease or disorder the holistic approach (which would normally complement conventional treatments) would look at the person as a whole and seek to treat all underlying causes, be they known or unknown.

    Name four general factors which you consider to be important to maintaining good health. Give a reason in each case.- Maintain good posture. The effects of poor posture are cumulative. When posture is poor the thoracic cavity is restricted which may lead to respiratory problems. When the body is correctly supported there is far less strain on individual muscles.
    - Eat a varied and balanced diet. A healthy diet is not limited to eating five pieces of fruit and vegetables a day, getting the right mix of nutrients to feeds the cells is crucial. It is also important to eat fresh foods and not those rich in additives. Ensuring that alcohol consumption is low is also beneficial for the body as a whole.
    - Exercise regularly. For the body to remain healthy its cellular system must be healthy. Cells are reliant upon blood and lymph to nourish them and carry away waste. Regular exercise may increase the oxygen capacity of the blood by in excess of 15%.
    - Keep a positive frame of mind. It has been proven that a positive attitude may aid recovery from illness.

    Give an example of how, in your opinion, mental attitude / emotions can affect the physical health of the body.
    Research published in November 2003 in Psychosomatic Medicine suggests that stress in the month prior to an operation can impact upon recovery afterwards. In this study, 47 hernia patients were tested and those with low stress levels reported less pain and shorter recovery times.

    Give two ways in which your listening skills could benefit your client.
    As a therapist it is important to develop good listening skills, this is not only to display professionalism but also to make the client feel that what they have to say is important and is valued.
    A therapist will need to develop listening skills as clients will often find it very hard to open up, which may be key in identifying any underlying or predisposed conditions.
    An increasing number of clients suffer from stress related problems, they may feel unable to talk to their family or friends about these issues and may turn to their therapist as they may be able to listen and to provide support without judgement.

    Give three examples of other holistic therapies along with a one or two sentence basic description of the therapies you have chosen.
    Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils, hydrosols and absolute oils from plants to promote health benefits and facilitate healing.
    Indian Head Massage or Champissage is based upon a traditional method of massage practised in India. Indian Head Massage is a massage which incorporates massage of the head, shoulders, face, neck and sometimes the arms and hands. It is known to relieve headaches and migraines and to reduce stress.
    Kinesiology was founded by the American chiropractor, George Goodheart. Kinesiology may detect imbalances, allergies, illness or weakness through muscle testing. If a muscle reacts abnormally or the function is restricted, this may denote a problem. Healing may be brought about via massage, avoidance of allergens, nutritional supplements, or even in conjunction with other energy or body techniques.

    Briefly explain the concept of the Healing Crisis (Making at least two points).
    Give three self-help activities or methods that might help a client let go of negative mental patterns and develop a more positive outlook on life.

    A healing crisis may occur following any treatment you may receive. Whilst many pharmaceuticals suppress the symptoms of a healing crisis, this is seen as very beneficial to the complementary therapist. Symptoms may be diverse in nature and intensity, ranging from mild discomfort, a heightened emotional state, tiredness, nausea, coughing, pain, stomach upset or even emotional disturbances or breakdown. This is seen as a very important stage in the healing process.

    A visit to the doctor can result in symptoms of an illness being alleviated, but often the patient still does not feel ‘better’. From a holistic perspective, give one reason why this might be so.
    When a patient comes to a doctor with symptoms of stress, they are diagnosed as suffering from depression or anxiety and prescribed drugs which will help to lift their mood and aid recovery. However, many patients suffer from recurring bouts of depression, as the underlying causes are left untreated. For example someone suffering from depression as a result of low self-esteem as a result of problems at work. If the patient was able to see a therapist and talk through the issue they have they may be able to establish some techniques to build not only on their confidence but also their ability to cope with the problem at hand.

    What might be a benefit of treating the mother of a child who has been brought to you for a treatment.
    Depending upon the circumstances the mother of a child receiving treatment would also benefit from a treatment.
    Parent: Under pressure, childs recovery sped up by happy healthy parent. Parents needs often neglected as child centre of attention.

    Give two reasons why it is not a good idea to keep taking painkillers for a recurrent headache.
    When faced with frequent headaches often the easiest thing to do is reach for the aspirin or paracetamol. Whilst the painkillers can work for a short period of time, frequent use may exacerbate the problem further when the headache itself reappears. You may end up needing more and more simply to keep the pain at bay.
    It is normally more beneficial to look into the reasons why the headaches are arising in the first place, so that changes can be made to prevent further occurrences. Food intolerance may be at fault, especially if the headaches occur with nausea or stomach problems. When someone is working too hard or simply not getting enough rest headaches are a warning sign to slow down and let the body recouperate.

    Why are the elderly living alone often advised to get a pet?

    In a recent lecture at the Royal Institution, June McNicholas of Warwick University claimed that pet owners make fewer trips to the doctors for stress related illnesses. Researchers believe that stroking a pet may help to lower blood pressure, provide friendship and support to the elderly and young alike and also provide someone to care for in later years, providing a feeling of worth.
    There also appears to be a clear link between pet ownership and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease amongst pet owners. This can be said for cat and dog owners alike and is not limited only to those walking the dog.


    Don’t kick out the cat – she could be good for your health By Nigel Hawkes, Health Editor, Science Today / Health Tomorrow -
    SOURCE: Psychosomatic Medicine, September/October 2003
    An Introductory |Guide to Reflexology, Louise Tucker, 2001, Ruben Publishing
    Indian Head Massage, Helen McGuinness, 2002, Hodder and Stoughton
    The New Book of Massage, Lucy Lidell & Sarah Thomas, 2000, Ebury Press
    The Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Complementary Health, Nikki Bradford, 1996, Hamlyn
    #1 Gussie, Nov 30, 2003
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2007
  2. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
    Likes Received:
    RE: AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

    Few more things to think about for this exam:

    1) How can reflexology help someone with the following condition: Cancer, asthma, exam nerves, verruca, lose weight.. etc
    2) Name two instances where a reflexologist may choose to disclose confidential information
    If an insurance claim is sought, if referred to another practitioner / GP
    3) Members should not claim to cure, explain.
    A reflexologist is not qualified to do this, they may suggest things to do within the scope of their training which may help alleviate a particular symptom, but you cannot claim to cure or prescribe.
    4) Why should a reflexologist not claim to cure?
    May give false hope, misleading information, contravene insurance / professional membership requirements, may be wrong, may encourage the client to forego conventional treatments thinking the reflexology may fix this, may dissuade the client from seeing their doctor.
    5) About using implements
    If the client is diabetic they may have some loss of sensation, or the skil may be weak.
    6) Why might a reflexologist have to report something to the legal authorities
    If a claim is made against them or another practitioner / client, if abuse is found and there is a requirement to do so. You may need to make the client aware of this if this is the case.
    7) Ethics: Why might you refuse to treat a client
    If the client is drunk, offensive, acts in a potentially threatening way, is under the influence of drugs. If the client refuses to pay, if you are too busy, if the client is insulting, if the treatment area is not clean / appropriate for use, if equipment is deemed unsafe, if you know the client personally and feel unable to treat them.
    8) Why might a code of conduct / code of ethics be important, what is needed to maintain this?
    Maintain professional standards, to ensure publicity is accurate, practice within the limits of your training, don't claim to cure, always carry out a consultation, keep information given confidential, act with professionalism at all times and treat clients well.
  3. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
    Likes Received:
    Few more questions for AOR Reflexology


    1a)Long bone / Humerus, Flat bone / Scapula, Sesamoid Bone / Patella, Short bone / Phalanges, Irregular bone / Vertebrae
    1b) Support body, protects organs, facilitate flexibility, store calcium phosphorus and salts, act as an attachment for muscles, facilitate movement

    2a) i) Prepare the body ofr fight or flight response (take blood away from organs, accelerate heartrate, restrict digestion, dilate pupils)
    2a) ii) Bring the body back into balance. (used to invoke sleep, increase digestion, decrease heart rate, bring blood to organs
    2B) i) Pain perceived in one area but originates from another.
    2b) ii) Sciatic pain felt in the back / legs
    Diaphragm - felt in the neck
    Kidney - felt in groin
    Heart - felt in left shoulder
    Liver - right shoulder

    3a) A fungal infection of the foot, cracking and peeling skin, possibly with weeping blisters between the toes.
    3)b) i) Powders, creams and drying feet properly.
    ii) Hinge joint - ankle/ toes, gliding joint - between tarsals and metatarsals

    4a) Affect digestion, resctrict diaphragm function and respiration, restrict nerve supply, restrict bloodflow
    4b) Receive information, process information, send message through neurones around body, constriction / movement takes place

    5a) Raised blood pressure over a period of time. Elevation of arterial blood pressure above the normal range. Restriction of the flow of blood through the vessels
    5b) Salt, diet, exercise, contraceptive pill, obesity, cholesterol
    5c) Removal o toxins, strengthen the lungs, improve muscle quality, for the release of endorphins, prevent fluid build up in the tissues.

    6a) Crisis following the law of cure, you may get worse before you get better. A contraaction to treatment.
    6b) relax, take up a hobby, meditate, visualisation, pamper yourself

    7a) Chi/ Ki/ Meridians.. if these channels are blocked illness may occur
    7b) Stimulate reflexes to clear energies and blockages. Bring about balance and homeostasis, to promote self-healing

    8a) For heat, energy, nutrients, growth, hydration, to sustain life, repair the body, maintain bosy and hormonal processes
    8b) Protein, fibre, carbohydrates, fat, minerals
    8c) Aid digestion, aid bowel function, prevent constipation, for the absorption of water
    #3 Gussie, May 3, 2004
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2007
  4. Prerana

    Prerana New Member

    Sep 20, 2003
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    RE: AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

    Hi Gussie - just a wee query - my memory isn't so good - but didnt Fitzgerald use the experiment of the cotton tipped bud in the mucous layer when he was working as a specialist in hospital, then realising that it anaethetised different areas but in the same zones.
    Then it was another guy who ( cant remember his name :) when recovering from an illness called his nurse to amssage the area which hurt - he then discoverd the are that she massaged healed more quickly then the rest - thus he discovered that healing occured as well as anaethetising effects
    Also what about Sheridan & ooh what was the other guy called who won the Nobel Prize for their discovery/research on reflex.

    Hmmn I'm off to find my brain & old files !

    PS -App they've removed Subtle Energy from the papers, & made them easier as the examining governing body change is now all implemented.
  5. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
    Likes Received:
    RE: AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

    Ironically I'm just about to take my folder to class this evening to show this years students..

    The format I used is as follows: Nesting quotes so you can see what goes with what...

    Hope this helps, it seems like a huge amount, but keep on top of your treatments and write them up as soon as you do them and you're golden.
  6. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
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    RE: AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff


    What is the format for the case studies?

    60 in total plus the client studies in the exams,
    6 x 6 and then the rest were random
    10x 6 is often preferable, so you could show you how progressed with your clients and their overall improvements and aftercare.. just need to show development..
  7. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
    Likes Received:
    RE: AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

    What is needed in the AOR portfolio:

    White Lights Course:
    Case Studies
    Client Studies
    Stress Assignment
    Support Organisations Assignment
    History of Reflexology

    My course:
    60 case studies, references and 4 client studies
  8. bird

    bird New Member

    Sep 21, 2003
    Likes Received:
    RE: AOR REflexology - Exam Questions / Assignments and stuff

    Hello - I just did my AoR Reflex on Sunday. It wasn't too bad - a breeze after those case studies!!
    The questions were quite well worded and not as ambiguous as we were warned they might be. No questions on foot A&P which was unexpected. Only question about hands was what does the 'Flexor Carpi Ulnaris' do?

    Lots along the lines of how you would help a stressed person with too much on their plate kind of thing.

    We were told to read up on the conditions/disorders i.e. diverticulitis etc. Glad I did because the first question worth 10 points was all about a digestive disorder.

    Hope this helps someone - keep your fingers crossed for me pleeeeaaase!!

    Lisa x
  9. Setanta

    Setanta New Member

    Jan 11, 2006
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    AOR Reflexology - Mock AOR A&P with answers


    To pay back for the help I got from the past papers that others have posted on these brilliant pages, here is a copy of a mock AOR Reflexology Anatomy & Physiology exam.

    Even though it’s only a mock it should be useful because AOR papers are as rare as hens teeth!

    There are diagrams, which I haven’t included, that you have to label but you should get the idea.

    Q1. This diagram illustrates bones of the lower leg and foot.

    Line drawing of foot

    (a) On the diagram draw labeled arrows to the bones listed below
    First Metatarsal Navicular Tibia (3 Marks)

    (b) Bones need vitamins, Minerals and hormones in order to develop and maintain function
    Name one of each
    i) mineral________________ (1 Mark)
    ii) vitamin________________ (1 Mark)
    iii) hormone________________ (1 Mark)

    (c) A client presents with osteoporosis.
    (i) suggest one likely cause or trigger________________
    ___________________________________________ (1 Mark)
    (ii) Explain why osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fracture
    ___________________________________________ (2 Marks)

    Q2 This diagram shows the bones of the hand and forearm

    Line drawing of hand

    (a) On the diagram draw labeled arrows to the bones listed below
    Radius Phalanx Hamate (3 Marks)

    (b) One function of the skeleton is to act as a leverage system

    State 2 (two) other functions of the skeleton
    First Function______________________________________(1 Mark)
    Second Function______________________________________(1 Mark)

    (c ) A client presents with Rheumatoid arthritis that is affecting the joints of her hand.

    (i) Suggest one possible cause of Rheumatoid arthritis
    __________________________________________ (1 Mark)

    3. This diagram shows organs associated with breathing

    Line drawing of lungs, trachea, ribs, diaphragm etc

    (a) (i) On the diagram draw labeled arrows to show
    The Diaphragm The Pleural Cavity A bronchus

    (ii) Use the diagram to explain what happens in the thorax when the diaphragm flattens

    __________________________________________ (3 Marks)

    (c) A client presents with emphysema

    (i) Which lung structures are damaged by emphysema?

    Tick next to the correct answer
    Alveoli ________
    Bronchioles ________
    Capillaries ________ (1 Mark)

    (ii) State one sign and one symptom with which this client is likely to present
    Sign ______________________________________________
    Symptom__________________________________________ (2 Marks)

    (iii) Suggest one possible cause of the clients emphysema
    __________________________________________ (1 Mark)

    4. This diagram shows a neurone

    a) (i) On the diagram draw labeled arrows to show the structures listed below
    Dendrite Nucleus Myelin Sheath

    (ii) Multiple sclerosis is one disease of the nervous tissues of the body. It results from the destruction of the myelin sheath on the neurons in the central nervous system.

    State one function of the myelin sheath
    __________________________________________ (1 Mark)

    (iii) What is the name given to the gap between two neurons
    __________________________________________ (1 Mark)

    (iv) What collective name is given to those parts of the nervous system that lead from the brain and spinal column to the organs and extremities of the body? (Put a tick beside the correct answer)
    Pneumatic ____________ Posterior______________
    Proactive______________ Peripheral_____________

    (V ) State one organ which the vagus nerve will affect
    __________________________________________ (1 Mark)

    (vi) What does the sympathetic system do to the pupils?
    __________________________________________ (1 Mark)

    AOR look for things to be much more specific than ITEC A&P. They take the first answer you put down and the look for a point for each mark awarded for the question.
    These answers are mine
  10. Gussie

    Gussie New Member

    Sep 19, 2003
    Likes Received:
    RE: AOR Reflexology - Mock AOR A&P with answers

    Ooh nice link, in true me style I'm copyin and pasting the info in for reference.. just in case that link goes byebyes..

    List of Anatomy and Physiology Examination Style Questions​
    The following questions have been written to enable students to focus on their Anatomy and
    Physiology revision with specific outcomes in mind. The revision questions are designed to
    allow the student to pick a system and test their knowledge accordingly. Anatomy and
    Physiology questions have been specifically requested initially and to follow will be a section
    on Reflexology and Business.
    1 The Cell​
    State one function of the cell membrane
    State one function of mitochondria within the cell
    What is the role of the nucleus within the cell?
    What is the proper name for a red blood cell?
    What is the proper name for a platelet cell?​
    2 The Skin​
    Name the two layers of the skin
    The skin has many functions, including elimination of waste products and production
    of melanin. List two other functions of the skin.
    Describe a verruca
    Dermatitis is a common condition found on the skin. Give a possible cause for this
    condition, and describe how you would effectively treat someone with reflexology
    presenting with this condition.
    What is the name of the chemical produced by the body during an allergic reaction?
    Name the layers of the epidermis
    At what layer does “cell birth” or reproduction occur in the skin?
    Give an example of a bacterial infection of the skin
    Give an example of a fungal infection of the skin​
    3 Skeletal system​
    Name the carpal bones
    Name the tarsal bones
    What bones make up the axial skeleton?
    What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
    What is compact bone and where is it found?
    What is cancellous bone and where is it found?
    Name the five different TYPES of bones found in the body and give an example of
    State three functions of the skeletal system
    Name one postural deformity of the spine and describe the nature of the deformity.
    Explain the treatment considerations that a reflexologist would give someone
    presenting with this condition, considering the treatment itself and the treatment
    Give an example of a fixed joint
    Give an example of a synovial joint
    What type of joint involves the femur and the hip bone? (ilium,ischium and pubis)?
    Describe osteoarthritis
    Describe Rheumatoid Arthritis​
    4 Muscular System
    Name two functions of the muscular system
    Name the three types of muscle tissue found in the body
    The muscle's ability to contract is affected by a number of factors. State or list at
    least 4 of these factors.
    What is muscle fatigue?
    How would you describe the terms origin and insertion?
    Describe the movement eversion
    Describe the movement adduction
    Describe the movement flexion
    Describe the location of gastrocnemius
    Describe the location of the hamstrings group of muscles
    Describe the location of flexor carpi ulnaris and its action​
    5 Circulatory system
    State the composition of blood
    What is systemic circulation?
    What is pulmonary circulation?
    What is coronary circulation?
    What are the main differences between an artery and a vein?​
    6 Lymphatic system
    What are the main differences between the lymphatic system and the circulatory
    Describe the structure of the lymphatic system
    State one function of a lymphatic node
    Name two special areas of lymphatic tissue in the body
    State two functions of the spleen
    How does lymph return to the circulatory system?​
    7 Nervous system
    Name the two parts of the central nervous system
    What is a neurone?
    State two purposes or functions of the myelin sheath
    What do motor nerves do?
    What do sensory nerves do?
    What areas of the body does the vagus nerve involve?
    Name a condition or disorder of the nervous system, describe the common
    symptoms and suggest how a reflexologist might adapt their treatment in order to
    effectively treat a client presenting with this condition.​
    8 Endocrine system
    What hormone is produced under stress?
    What is an endocrine gland?
    What is a hormone?
    What gland produces FSH?
    What is FSH?
    What is the function of FSH?
    What gland produces Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) and what is the function of this
    What hormone is tested for in urine when a woman conceives?
    What hormone is tested for in urine when a woman is ovulating?​
    9 Reproductive system
    State one function of the prostate gland
    State one function of the fallopian tubes
    Describe the location of the cervix and state one of its actions
    Describe ectopic pregnancy and the treatment of this condition.​
    10 Digestive system
    State one function of the oesophagus
    State three functions of saliva
    Describe the role of the stomach in the process of digestion
    State two functions of the large intestine
    Name the three parts of the small intestine
    Name the various parts of the large intestine from start to finish
    State three components that the liver removes from the blood
    State one of the functions of the gall bladder
    Describe one of the functions of the pancreas​
    11 The Respiratory system
    Name the muscles involved with external respiration
    What is external respiration?
    What is internal respiration?
    State one function of the trachea
    A client presents with Sinusitis. What is this condition, how do you recognise it, and
    how would you treat the symptoms of this condition with reflexology?​
    12 Urinary system
    Name the tubes between the kidneys and bladder
    Name the tube between the bladder and the outside of the body
    What is one function of the bladder?
    Decribe how ADH works on the tubules of the kidneys
    What is cystitis, describe its symptoms and any aftercare advice you would give a
    client suffering with this condition

    #10 Gussie, Jun 12, 2006
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2007
  11. Arualwestcork73

    Arualwestcork73 New Member

    Jan 3, 2018
    Likes Received:
    Hi. Am new to this site. Sitting here studying for the 1st syllabus of A & P exam next Saturday. Am training to become a Reflexoloy Practitiner.

    Am so nervous....


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